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This recommendation focuses on the increasing risk to federal executive branch officials of civil liability for monetary damages for alleged violations of federal constitutional rights. This vulnerability has expanded dramatically in recent years, as a result of judicially-discovered rights enunciated in Bivens v. Six...

A person adversely affected by an agency rule may ordinarily obtain judicial review of that rule either by instituting a direct review proceeding against the agency in an appropriate court (pre-enforcement review)1 or by asserting the invalidity of the rule as a defense...

The Contract Disputes Act, 41 U.S.C. 601-613, enacted in 1978, established a comprehensive system for resolving disputes arising out of federal government contracts. Under the Act, disputes...

The Administrative Procedure Act (APA) provides for public participation in agency rulemaking. The Act’s minimum requirements for informal rulemaking are notice and an opportunity to comment on proposed rules. The advantages of public participation in agency rulemaking are widely recognized: the agency benefits because interested persons are...

This recommendation is addressed to the organizational structures which agencies establish to review decisions of presiding officers (ordinarily, administrative law judges) in proceedings governed by sections 556 and 557 of the Administrative Procedure Act or otherwise involving agency determinations on the record after opportunity for a hearing. It...

The Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) and discovery provide separate mechanisms for obtaining the disclosure of Government documents. Any person may invoke at any time the release provisions of the FOIA by requesting an agency to disclose any reasonably described agency records. A requester’s need for the records and his purpose in making the...

Major industrial development projects often have significant environmental effects and require permit approvals and preparation of environmental reviews by agencies under legislation such as the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) and the Clean Air Act. Although governmental permitting and review processes...

States have the power to regulate many forms of conduct. Each state must have broad power to regulate in ways that it believes to be in the best interests of its citizens, subject to the limitations stated in the federal and state constitutions. The nature and magnitude of the problems that require regulatory action vary substantially among the...

In the Federal Tort Claims Act and dozens of other statutes,1 Congress has authorized agencies to provide compensation for losses occasioned by a variety of agency actions. The FTCA, the centerpiece of this array, essentially waives the government’s sovereign immunity to...

Cost/benefit analysis1 may ordinarily be applied by an agency to a regulatory action, except when Congress has forbidden its use or has specified, in the authorizing legislation, the precise regulatory outcome Congress desired. Any legislative directive short of complete specificity...

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